Hyderabad (Sindhi: حيدرآباد, Urdu: حيدرآباد ) is main city situated in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. Hyderabad is the fourth greatest city in Pakistan and second greatest in Sindh. It is situated in the side of south-east of the country.
In the time period of AD 711, Muhammad bin Qasim conquered the province Sindh and the Indus Valley, bringing the region of South Asian societies into a contact with the religion of Islam. Raja Dahir was a Hindu king who governed over a Buddhist majority and that Chach of Alor and his kin were known as usurpers of the earlier Buddhist Rai Dynasty. This perspective is asked by those who pointed out the diffuse and blurred nature of Hindu and Buddhist practices in the place, particularly that of royalty to be patrons of both and those who consider that Chach himself might have been a Buddhist. The troops of Muhammad bin Qasim defeated the Raja Dahir in alliance with the Jatts and other local governors.
Hyderabad is a city constructed on 3 hillocks cascading over each other. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro of the Kalhora Dynasty discovered the city in the year 1768 over the remnants of Neroon Kot, a minor fishing village on the banks of Indus River named after its famous ruler Neroon. A formal idea for the city was founded by his son, Sarfraz Khan in the year 1782. When the constructions were laid, the city gained the nickname Heart of the Mehran as the ruler Mian Ghulam Shah himself was claimed to have fallen in love with this amazing city. In the year 1768 he decided to build a fort on one of the 3 hills of the city Hyderabad to house and defend his individuals. The fort was constructed utilizing fire-baked bricks, on case of which it was named Pacco Qillo meaning the strong fort.
The City has a background of Sufism. In the eighteenth Century Syeds from the city of Multan moved and settled at Tando Jahania making it a holy place for Muslims. These Syeds migrated here from Uch Sharif (Bahawalpur District) through Jahanian (Khanewal District 42 km from the city of Multan). These were the proposed descendants of Jahaniyan Jahangashta prominent Sufi saint.
Capital of Sindh
The City of Hyderabad was appointed as the capital of Sindh from the time period of 1947 to 1955, which was later dissolved and 1 unit was created named as West Pakistan. This city also served as capital during the era of Kalhoro.
Demographics of Hyderabad
Hyderabad is a noted city in the province of Sindh and Pakistan normally for its comparative patience towards religious and ethnic minorities. This city is various ethnic and has a mix of Sindhi, Urdu speaking Muhajirs, Pashtuns, Punjabis, Memons and Baloch persons.
The emergence of Pakistan in the year 1947 observed the influx of Muslim Urdu-speaking Muhajirs from the state of India fleeing from anti-Muslim programs. Mahjirs primarily live in the town of Latifabad and Sindhi mainly live in the city of Qasimabad.
A major influx of Punjabis were pursued to the city of Hyderabad after the Indus treaty settlement. Most Punjabis and Pakhtuns are different and separately surviving near the railway station and its vicinity. The city hence has cosmopolitan setting with various ethnic and various cultural communities.
Hindus account for the greatest religious minority making 5 percent of the complete population of the city. While Christians account for 1 percent of the total population, Hyderabad is the primary seat of a Diocese of the Church of Pakistan and has 5 churches and a cathedral.
Geography and climate of Hyderabad
Situated at 25.367 °N latitude and 68.367 °E longitude with a height of 13 meters (43 ft), Hyderabad is situated on the east bank of the Indus River and is nearly150 kilometers (93 mi) away from the city of Karachi, the provincial capital. 2 of Pakistan’s greatest highways, the Indus Highway and the National Highway join at Hyderabad. Various towns encircling the city involve Kotri at 6.7 kilometers (4.2 mi), Jamshoro at 8.1 kilometers (5.0 mi), Hattri at 5.0 kilometers (3.1 mi) and Husri at 7.5 kilometers (4.7 mi).
Hyderabad has a very hot desert climate with warm situations year-round. The time period from the month of mid-April to the month of late June is the hottest of the year, with highs peaking in the month of May at almost 41.4 °C (106.5 °F). During this period, winds that blow commonly bring along huge clouds of dust, and persons prefer staying in homes at daytime, while the wind that flows at night is more cool and pleasant. The season of winters here has a roughly temperature of 25 °C (77 °F), though lows can mostly drop below 10 °C (50 °F) at the time of night. The highest temperature of 48.5 °C (119 °F) was monitored on the day of 7 June 1991, while the lowest temperature of 1 °C (34 °F) was recorded on the day of 8 February 2012.
In recent years, the city of Hyderabad has observed great downpours. In the month of February 2003, Hyderabad acquired 105 millimeters (4.13 in) of rain in twelve hours, leaving many dead. The years of 2006 and 2007 analyzed close contenders to this record rain with death rates recorded in the hundreds. The greatest single-day rain total of 250.7 millimeters (9.87 in) was recorded on the day of 12 September 1962, while the wettest month was the month of September 1962, at 286 millimeters.
Hyderabad is a significant commercial centre where industries involve: tanneries, textiles, cement, and manufacturing of mirror, sugar, ice, soap, paper, plastics, pottery, hosiery mills and film. Handicraft industries, involving silver and gold work, ornamented silks, lacquer ware, and embroidered leather saddles, are also well developed. The city of Hyderabad generates almost all of the ornamental glass bangles in the state of Pakistan. The city of Hyderabad is a large commercial centre for the agricultural production of the nearby area, involving rice, millet, wheat, cotton, and fruit.
Before the governance of Abubaker Nizamani, the District Hyderabad involved the current-day District of Badin. Then in the years of 2005-6 General Pervaiz Musharraf again categorized it into 4 more districts Tando Allahyar, Matiyari, Tando Mohammad Khan and Hyderabad. Hyderabad district was subcategorized into 4 talukas:
- Amri: an archaeological location dating back to the year 3600 BC, 110-km (68 mi) from the city, is the remnants of a pre-Harrapan fortified area.
- The Mausoleums of Talpur Mirs: colloquially called as Cubbas in Hirabad, tomb locations of the ex-rulers of Sindh who were attacked by the British in the popular battle of Miani.
- Pacco Qillo and the Kachha Qilla: fortified residences that were constructed by the Talpur rulers to keep out attackers during the seventeenth century.
- Rani Bagh: Previously a zoo named after Queen Victoria of England has been reconstructed and has become a very amazing park with animals like lions, zebras, several species of birds as well as horses.
- Agham Kot: an archaeological location consisting of the reminisce and tombs of a historical empire.
- Ranikot Fort: one of the greatest forts in the world in accordance to circumference. Situated 90 km from the city.
- Sindh Museum: a museum depicting the history and heritage of Sindh and the Indus Valley Civilization. Products from several ruling times of Sindh, involving Samma, Soomra, Kalhora and Talpur eras can be seen at the museum.
- Institute of Sindhology Museum: an exhibition of dioramas at the institution of University of Sindh campus that depict many aspects of the background of Sindh, its heritage, music and culture. The notable items are the ones that express the lifestyles of the desert regions of Thar and Kohistan.
- The mighty river Indus: the greatest river in the state of Pakistan and flows alongside the city of Hyderabad. Its banks touching the city of Hyderabad are famous to have some of the finest fishing spots in the country Pakistan.
As tradition goes, the province of Sindh had always been a center for Sufi poets. With a foothold on powerful educational foundations, Hyderabad was made into a sanctuary for prominent literary advocates. Of the few, Mirza Kalich Beg gained education from the Government High School, Hyderabad and took the banner of Sindhi literature across all other borders. Contemporary novelists, columnists, writers, and researchers such as Musharraf Ali Farooqi, Ghulam Mustafa Khan and Qabil Ajmeri also belong to Hyderabad.
Hyderabad has facilitated various Sindhi literary campaigns throughout the background of Pakistan as is evident from the daily newspapers and periodicals that are released in the city. Some notable dailies are the Kawish, Ibrat, and Daily Sindh.
With the launch of a latest broadcasting house at the city of Karachi in the year 1950, it was possible to develop the Hyderabad radio station in the year 1951. The earlier broadcast was made capable utilizing 1 kW medium-wave transmitter. With the 1st victorious transmissions on the FM 100 bandwidth in the cities of Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad in the month of October 1998, the Government decided on launching transmissions to other cities where Radio Pakistan had found victory. This made available the FM 101 bandwidth transmissions to the city of Hyderabad and other cities in the province of Sindh.
A relief from the daily broadcasts in rest of the cities, entertainment content on the city of Hyderabad radio offered birth to various stars whose names became an attribute to the richer media content of Hyderabad. Among them were the famous actor Shafi Mohammad, a young man who had completed his postgraduate degree from the institution of University of Sindh. Such young talent became a benchmark to entertainment in the city of Hyderabad.
Pakistan Television had merely had half-a-decade broadcast victory from the years of 1963 to 1969 that persons in the radio entertainment business felt destined to make a trademark on the TV circuits. Notable radio personalities from the Hyderabad radio station such as Shafi Muhammad Shah and Mohammad Ali left the airwaves to hone their acting qualities on the TV. Television shows and content enriched with the Hyderabadi names although PTV never launched a television station in the city of Hyderabad.
While the year of 2005 observed new FM regular stations set up at the cities of Gawadar, Sargodha, Mianwali, Bannu, Kohat, and Mithi, private radio channels started airing in and around the city of Hyderabad. Of late, stations such as Sachal FM 105 and few others have acquired fame. But the unavailability of an up-to-date news and present affairs platform renders the facilities of such stations of not much significance to the masses but nevertheless attracting to youngsters.
As the Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (abbreviated as PEMRA) provided licenses to private radio channels, so were TV channels has privately offered a right to broadcast from the year of 2002, and Daily Kawish, a notable Sindhi newspaper issued from the city of Hyderabad inaugurated a one-of-its-kind private Sindhi channel Kawish Television Network. Various followed in its path namely Dhoom TV, Sindh TV, and Kashish TV premiering Sindhi content.
Eminent people of Hyderabad
- Jivatram Kripalani, Indian politician and Indian independence activist.
- K. R. Malkani, Indian politician. Lieutenant-Governor of Pondicherry.
- Mirza Kalich Beg, civil servant and author
- Hoshu Sheedi, General of Talpur Mirs’ Army, which fought against British in the Battles of Miani and last Battle of Dubbo.
- Sadhu T. L. Vaswani, Hindu spiritualist. Founder of the Sadhu Vaswani Mission.
- Allama Imdad Ali Imam Ali Kazi, philosopher and scholar
- Nabi Bux Khan Baloch, linguist and author
- Ghulam Mustafa Khan, researcher and linguist
- Muhammad Ibrahim Joyo, scholar and translator
- Choudry Mohammad Sadiq, politician and Muslim Leaguer
- Bhawani Shankar Chowdhry, ICT Professional and an electronics engineer.
- Syed Qamar Zaman Shah, the nephew and son-in-law of Late Syed Miran Mohammad Shah. Senator during the early 1970s.
- Qabil Ajmeri, recognized as a “senior” poet of Urdu
- Syed Miran Mohammad Shah, speaker of Sindh legislative Assembly, Minister in the Sindh Government, Ambassador of Pakistan to Spain.