Nani Gopal Majumdar: The Notable Archaeologist of Sindh

Nani Gopal Majumdar was an eminent Indian archaeologist who is always appreciated for discovering 62 Indus Valley Civilization sites in Sindh province involving Chanhudaro.

Early life & education

Nani Gopal Majumdar was born on the day of 1 December 1897 to Baradaprasanna Majumdar and his wife Sarojini in the town of Jessore. Majumdar received his education of his M. A. from the institute of University of Calcutta in the year of 1920, acquiring the prestigious gold medal. He achieved the degree of doctorate from the institute of Calcutta University in the year of 1923 for his thesis on “Vajra”. The same year he joined the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) and participated in the excavations at the historical site of Mohenjodaro.

Archaeology work of Nani Gopal Majumdar

On the time period of 22 April 1929, Nani Gopal Majumdar was elected as the Superintendent of the Central Circle and served till the day of 9 May 1929 when he was transferred to the Head Office in Calcutta as Assistant Superintendent.

Discoveries in Sindh

Nani Majumdar first explored the province of Sindh in the year of 1927. During his explorations, he founded that the Lower Indus Valley was inhabited as early as the Early Indus period. Aided by a small grant, in the time period of 1927-28, Nani excavated the Indus Valley site of Jhukar near Mohenjodaro. In March 1930, Majumdar excavated two new sites of Tharo Hill and Chanhudaro.

In the month of October 1930, Nani Majumdar left Dokri near the historical site of Mohenjodaro and headed southwest along the Kirthar Mountains. By the time, he came back in the year of March 1931, Majumdar had founded more than 32 prehistoric sites. Majumdar wrote a in-depth report of his explorations and excavations in his book Exploration in Sind (1934).

On the day of 1 October 1938, Majumdar was once again deputed to Sindh province for six months to explore the region for Indus Valley sites. Nani Gopal travelled over 200 miles on foot and discovered half a dozen historical sites of the Chalcolithic period.


On the morning of 11 November 1938, while offering prayer at the small Hindu shrine which was close to his camp near the archaeological site of Rohelji Kund, on bank of Gaaj river, Johi, Dadu District, Majumdar was shot dead by bandits. A plaque marks the spot where he was murdered.

Personal life

Nani Gopal married Snehlata Mukherjee. The couple had 2 daughters and a son, Tapas Majumdar (1929-2010). Tapas, who were nine when Nani Gopal breathed last, later graduated from the Presidency College, Calcutta where he served as a professor of economics.



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