Makhdoom Muhammad Hashim Thattvi (1693- 1761) was a popular Islamic scholar, author, philanthropist, and spiritual leader who was believed as a saint by his followers. He was the 1st ever Quranic exegesis writer in the Sindhi dialect. He also executed the office of the Chief Justice and stayed the Governor of Sindh and linked places of Punjab in the Kalhora period. Makhdoom was also a feudal lord and tribe chieftain. He was the popular Islamic theologian and the Imam of the Grand Mosque at the city Thatta. He involved himself in missionary responsibilities and was popular among Sufis. He wrote Madah Nama Sindh, Dirham al-Surrat Fi Wada al-Yadayn Taht al-Surrah, Al-Baqiyat as-Salihat and various other books. His religious dictums shaped the culture of Sindh and Islamic tradition in the province of Sindh. He was considered to be a leading professional authority on the Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. He belonged to the Naqshbandi order of Sufism, and preached the Hanafi school of thought. He has a huge following throughout the Muslim world especially in the province Sindh and Thatta district in particular.
Thattvi descends from Harith bin Abdul Mutalib of the Tribe Quraish, to which the Islamic Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) also belonged.
- Muhammad Hashim
- Abdur Rahman
- Abdul Ghafur
- Khairuddin Harsi.
- Abdul Latif
Early life and education
Makhdoom belonged to a very religious, traditional and educated family and acquired basic education from his father Makhdoom Abdul Ghafoor. His father taught him to memorize and recite the Holy Quran. He further commanded Persian language and Fiqh from his house and travelled to the district Thatta the basic hub of education, poetry, spiritual grooming and culture of the time for acquiring higher education. It was in the period of the Kalhoras when the province of Sindh was at its peak in reference to diverse culture and economic growth. Scholars, poets, intellectuals were discovered in abundance and such persons were very much obeyed trusted and honored. The city of Thatta had been entirely distinctive as in the time period of 1111 Hijri it had 400 high schools and 1400 mosques and is of its own type even today, this pursued Makhdoom Hashim to come to the district Thatta and get Arabic classes from Makhdoom Saeed. Makhdoom by his extreme intellect and sharp mind completed the curriculum which was commonly completed in 6 years just in merely 6 months this made Makhdoom earn a lot of fame among the great scholars and persons used to come and visit him from far away rural areas and places and so he became a hub of attraction for many sacred leaders and individuals started to see him as their spiritual master.
Makhdoom proceeded towards the Makhdoom Zia uddin Thattvi to get the knowledge of the science of ahadith and associated matters. It took him 9 years to learn the languages of Persian and Arabic. Meanwhile his father Makhdoom Abdul Ghafoor lost his life on the time period 1113 Hijri in the blessed month of Dhul-hajj and was buried in his hometown at Sehwan.
Makhdoom arrived in Makkah and Madinah and learnt exegesis, ahadith, religious basics, tajwid and fiqh.
He wrote nearly 400 books in the languages of Arabic, Sindhi and Persian, involving:
- Madah Nama Sindh: The book consists of merits and values of Sindh and Sindhi society in the twelfth century Hijri.
- Dirham al-Surrat Fi Wada al-Yadayn Taht al-Surrah. This is a short book that witnesses the Hanafi way of keeping hands in Qiyam during prayer is proved by Sahih Hadith.
- Al-Baqiyat as-Salihat: This book elaborates the biographies of Muhammad’s wives and various Islamic figures.
His authored books are involved in the syllabus of Al-Azhar University today as well. Few of his books have been translated into the language of Sindhi by Allama Muhammad Idrees Dahiri and Ghulam Mustafa Qasmi, involving Madah Nama Sindh, al-Baqiyat as-Salihat and Khamsat at-Tahirah.
Thousands of followers visit his Mausoleum each day which is situated in Makli, Thatta, near the ancient Makli graveyard. Many devotees are buried alongside his shrine. Some of the names of the famous resting there are as follows: Ubaidullah Sindhi, Hassam-ud-Din Rashidi
Makhdoom Hashim’s Urs is celebrated each year on the sixth of Rajab at the tomb.
The day’s happenings and proceedings include recitation of the Quran, hymns and praises of Allah and Muhammad and the Prophet, and religious discourses are offered by regional orators and scholars.