Thul Hairo Khan: The Famous Stupa of Buddhism in Sindh

The Thul Hairo Khan is an eminent stupa of Buddhism which is resided in the area of Taluka Johi, Dadu District, Sindh province, Pakistan. It is developed with baked and unbaked bricks which are fixed with an element made from mud mixed water. The stupa is basically 50 feet high and 30 feet wide in size. The stair from the direction of north side of stupa leads to its top. This notable stupa has arched tunnel at the level of ground which crosses from north to south. It is considered that stupas such as Hairo Khan were constructed in the province of Sindh between 5th to 7th centuries AD. Thul Hairo Khan seems to be the series of discovered in other areas of Sindh.

Background of Thul Hairo Khan

In accordance with few accounts, Buddhism spread in the province of Sindh in the time period of 3rd century BC during the period of King Asoka of Maurya Empire. Chandragupta Maurya was the eminent founder of Maurya Empire who was supported by little kingdoms of Sindh and Punjab provinces. He defeated Greek dominance there. The province of Sindh became division of Maurya Empire in the time period of 305 BCE and during Maurya Empire Buddhism thrived in Sindh at large, specifically through the realm of Asoka the great. Hiouen-Tsang who came to the province of Sindh in the time period of 641 AD and had recorded eighty-eight thousands stupas up to borders of Sindh province. The province of Sindh was hub of Buddhism during Rai Dynasty. Chach was the hub of Brahman dynasty of Sindh. His brother Chandar or Chandra was Buddhist. In accordance with Chach Nama, a first written source material on Sindh’s history during the monarchy of Rai kings together with Brahmans, Buddhiya country (division) was part of Sindh, which demonstrates to Buddhism as dominant religion in Sindh province. Buddhism remained and grew in every part of Sindh till 13th century AD in Soomra dynasty of Sindh. Stupas were believed to be as holy and religious remains of Buddhism.


The development of Thul Hairo Khan is in rectangular shape. The measurement of round shaped top of stupa is 5’-11” while the circumference’s measurement is 14’0”. The baked bricks utilized in stupa are of 11”x 6”x 2” size. Whereas, the baked bricks used in round shape such as the circle at the top of stupa are 11.6”x 2”x 5” in size.


Thul Hairo Khan is situated towards the direction of north of village Haji Khan Laghari in (Kachho) taluka Johi, at distance of 10 km and towards north-east of Johi Town at distance of 15 km. At Latitude: 26°49’40.3″, Longitude: 67°28’28.81



Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here