Who Was Raja Dahir?

Whoever Marry Rani Bai Would Become The King Of Sindh

We all are well aware about Raja Dahir whom Mohammad Bin Qasim defeated to enter Sindh but we don’t know much about whom he was and how he became the ruler of Sindh. There are many stories and legends behind and we have today we have culminated those stories into a section of our history.

This story is about one of the lands upon which Pakistan is formed and that land is called Sindh. It was ruled by a Buddhist king named Sahisi. Raja Sahisi had a Brahman minister whose name was Dewan ram.  He got inspired by a young Hindu stranger and made him into his secretary.  Once Raja Sahisi called his minister to write him a letter but he wasn’t available and instead this young Hindu was sent in place of him who was known as “Chach”.

Raja Sahisi was so much impressed by his abilities that he made him into his vice-minister. After a few days Dewan ram died and the young boy took his place as the high minister. One day Raja Sahiri called Chach to a place where the King`s queen was present as well. The queen got overwhelmed by the beauty and ability or chach and she sent a message of love to him through her personal messenger but Chach replied by saying that he cannot betray the king.Chach

The queen replied to Chach by saying that she respects his feelings but he can at least come to the castle regularly so she can see his face. Chach agreed to this. During that time the King`s trust and faith in Chach had grown even more. The king even became sick and he took Chach`s advises as the final decision in some of the most important issues of the kingdom. When the king`s condition worsened even more so one day the queen called Chach and said to him that as he knows that the condition of the king is getting worse and he doesn`t even has an heir because of which the ones who defy me would soon kill me and take the thrown but if he showed a bit bravery he could be bestowed with the thrown and the kingdom with her.

Chach decided to be strong.

Chach told the queen whose name was Sonhi that he knows that she has a plan in her mind that’s why she has summoned him today. Then Rani Sonhi said to him, “go and order fifty chains and locks and hide them into the castle through a secret way so that they can be used when needed.”Chach

Immediately through Chach`s orders, heavy chains and locks were prepared and were hid in the castle. When the king`s last moments came and his well-wishers were about to leave just then the queen asked them to stay for a little while longer and also through her secret servants she hid the king at the back of the castle and declared to his people that he king has died. After this, the queen called her secret troops to the castle and also summoned all the close relatives, advisors and next of the throne by saying that the king is better now and wanted to take advise from them. His well-wishers came one by one and even groups and the queen`s men would chain them. Then she called the most weak of the King`s relatives and told them that the king is angry with some of his relatives for some reason and want them to be chained. If they can kill them for the king so they can have his throne and wealth. In this way, everyone killed their enemies and became owners of their wealth and this way Rani Sohni and Chach conquered their enemies in one night.

Her all servants, soldiers and king`s weak relatives who became wealthy by defeating their enemies stood in lines in front of the castle fully armed. The throne was decorated lavishly. Then the queen sent a message through a minister named “Budhiman” to tell all the courts men and ministers that the king is fine but due to the grief of mismanagement he cannot come and greet them and cannot even take part in the matters of the kingdom there fore he has declared Chach as his replacement so that he can run the kingdom in the name of the king. All the people and the court men bowed their head for the king as they found Chach as the most able of them all for this position. Then the queen presented Chach with a robe decorated with diamonds and all kinds of jewels and offered him the throne. The crowned was placed on his head and it was ordered to appoint a new minister and start all processing of the kinfdom from the beginning. Like that the king`s linage came to an end Chach Brahman became the King of Sindh. Raye Sahisi died in 632.Who Was Raja Dahir?

Chach took the throne in 632 A.D and ruled for almost 40 years. After six months of the king`s death, his brother King Mehrath learned about his death and also that a Brahman has taken over the throne through a conspiracy. He declared war on Chach and both of the fought at Arorh. Thefight took an important turn and that’s when Mehrath sent a message to Chach saying that he must fight him face to face if he brave and the winner will sit on the throne. Chach accepted the challenge but put a condition to come with horses and the king accepted. They both arrived on horses. Chach got off the horse and told one of his soldiers to slowly bring the horse behind his as he walk while on the other hand Mehrath got off his horse and with good speed walked towards Chach. When Chach saw that the king was at a considerable distance from his horse, Chach hurriedly turned back, climbed back on the horse and cut the king`s head off. In 633 A.D, Chach officially became the sole ruler of Sindh and married Rani Sohni as well against all the customs of his time as Brahmans weren’t allowed to marry a widow.

Chach married many times after this but his two sons came from Rani Sonhi. His daughter “Bai Rani” is said to be from a Rajpot woman while his elder son was Jay Seena and small son was called Dahir. At the time of birth, they were predicted to be crowned kings.

After this, Chach conquered northern-sindh, Punjab, Sehwistan, Bodhia, Karman and Makran. After conquering Brahmanabad, he married the widow of ruler Agham Lohana from which he received a daughter named Bai Rani. When she was born it was predicted that whoever would marry her will become the king of Sindh but this was kept a secret.

In order to prevent any future mutiny against his reign, Chach equaled the social status of the ruling family of Lohana and the second powerful family of “Jat” to Shudr. Thwy were prohibited to wear silk clothes neither they were going to use horses and any other luxurious accommodation.

The people belonging to Jat were farmers to begin with so they were given a status of Vish which is above Shidr but when the foreign rule ended in Pakistan, the feudal lords and many people with high posts became the rulers. These people who called themselves the Rajputs suppressed these Jat farmers and collected taxes from them and they couldn’t even revolt against them. The extent of cruelty towards Jats from the Rajputs can be seen by the restriction put on them by Chach.

Chach was the ruler of some Pakistani land as well whole of Rajasthan. He had to face some revolts over the time but he suppressed all of them every time. He died in 671 A.D after which his younger brother Chandar became the ruler. He was an evident Brahman of a Hindu temple. Chach also made him the vice-minister but when he became the king of a large empire that stretched from Kashmir to the Arabian Sea he soon established the ways of the Buddhists.

Famous writer Doctor Mubarrak writes about Chach`s biography is his book History of Sindh that Raja Chandar forcefully converted his hindu courtmen into Buddhists. The reason behind this action is still not understandable as “Buddha” was incarnated as a God in Hindu mythology and ranks of Gods and Goddesses. The racial and social discrimination was going the way it was but what use would he have of enforcing such a social change. Thinking that he is very much religious, the governor of Arorh, Patta secretly went to a Empire based on Hindu lands known as Qnoojh and tempted King Mehris to attack on Chandar saying that he is more of a religious extremist than a good ruler. Mehris immediately called an attack on Chandar but he expertly defended his castle and Chach`s youngest son Dahir earned victory at this battle.

Raja Dahir Becoming A King:Who Was Raja Dahir?

After the battles, Dahir was made the governor of Arorh and Chandar`s son Deoraj as the governor of Brahmanabad. This even took place in 678 A.D. Chandar died one year after this and Chach`s eldest son Jayseena became the king. Though he was the eldest but as Raja Dahri was present in the court and next in line of the throne, he declared himself King of the whole kingdom.

Jayseena thought that making the regime stronger in Brahmanabad was enough for him. During this the ruler of Bhatia showed his wished of marrying Jayseena`s sister Rani Bai considering him as a brother. Jayseena agreed to the proposal and sent Dahir to prepare for their sister`s departure.

When the messenger reached Dahir, he called an expert fortuneteller in order to take advice from him for his sister. Amazingly, the fortuneteller predicted the same thing that was said to King Chach when Rani Bai was born that whoever will marry this girl will become the ruler of the country. He also told that Rani Bai`s stars say that she will not leave Arorh.

Dahir got worried with this news and thought to take advice of his trusted minister, Budhiman. Budhiman has been his father`s advisor and minister as well but he gave Raja Dahir a very strange solution. He told Raja Dahir to marry his sister and make her sit on the throne due to which he will become the king of the land as predicted by the fortunetellers.

Though Rani Bai was not his sister by blood but still it was a very hard and risky decision to take as it was against all their religious and social morals and values. But the minister came up with another trick to make raja Dahir follow his command.

For this purpose he took a sheep with good wool and mixed its wool with sand. After this he distributed some seeds on it and watered it and took good care of the sheep. After a few days some little plants grew on it after which he left the sheep to roam in the streets. At first people were very amazed to see this strange animal and would crowd to see it. The sheep roamed in the streets for few days after sometime the crowd wasn’t interested it anymore and soon forgot about the sheep. Budhiman took this example and explained to Dahir that if he marries his step sister people will talk about it for a while but will soon forget. After hearing this Raja Dahir agreed to this and married his step sister. It is Chach`s Biography (page 45) that he took his Rani Bai`s veil and knotted with his shirt and took oaths around the fire.

It is also said in the “Antiquities of Sind” by Henry Kiturner that when Raja Dahir was told about this scheme he couldn’t come in terms of it and married his sister with a sword which was a common ritual in the society in order to preserve family wealth. But the debates against the validity of this ritual are:

  • if this ritual was so common in their religion than why the example of the sheep was needed?
  • According to the prediction, the husband of Rani Bai will become the Ruler and this will not be achieved by marrying her with a sword. One must legally become her husband in order to be king.
  • Dahir`s elder brother proclaimed war on him for this action and wrote him a letter upon which Raja Dahir replied his brother with the explanation that Rani Bai is not his actual sister.
  • It is also said that the Arabs roamed out this story in order to filth his character but according to history, the amateur, fearsome and weak strategy Raja Dahir executed against Mohamamd Bin Qasim reflects his character then what would be the need of this story?
  • His father married a widow and broke the rules of his religions which means that this ritual was already in action by his father than there can be no surprise in this that it could be valid that raja Dahir married his sister in order to preserve the kingdom.

Dahir`s Brother`s Reaction:

Obviously Dahir`s brother was outraged with this action and immediately sent his bother a letter saying that he will be punished for this action unless he seek redemption and break the marriage upon which Dahir replied that Rani Bai was born from the woman of the enemies who was a stranger. At this Jayseena marched towards his brother with a false trail making him believe he will not attack and when he was a considerable distance from the castle, he travelled with the speed of lightening and camped outside the castle. He again sent a message to his brother and they both exchanged some talks. The stories that followed are described as follows:Who Was Raja Dahir?

It is said that Dahir with all caution marched towards his brother and to show people that there is nothing wrong with them set with him on his elephant but Dahir`s minister soon followed him and whispered to him that this is his brother`s trick to kill him and in order to save him he must hang on to the castle door`s when the elephant passes and then he will be rescued. Dahir did as he was told and when his brother got to know about this he was grieved and fell sick.

There are many unacceptable aspects of this story such as the door of the castle being this low for Dahir to hang on it and that Dahir`s brother couldn’t know what was being whispered to Dahir so this story is very questionable but in the end there was no solution but soon after leaving the city Jayseena feel sick and died and in that Raja Dahir became the ruler of Sindh and thus the prediction of marrying Rani Bai was fulfilled.Who Was Raja Dahir?

In 687 A.D, a large empire based either in Rajhistan or some other Hindu area named as Qnoojh attacked Sindh under the leadership of King Ramal. Dahir upon counsel decided to march against this attack and was advised to take help of “Allafi” also known as Mohammad Haris Allafi. He was disloyal Muslim betrayer and after killing the governor of Makran and ran to Raja Dahir for refuge. Upon counsel, Allafi was consulted to lead and he with his 500 men was Dahir`s most brave marched in the darkness of night and attacked the enemy troops. The attack was brutal and a big success that the enemy left without even claiming his martyrs and this is how Dahir was repaid for his favors and bith of them became even closer.